Actions

Difference between revisions of "Let's chat about stress and... feet"

(Attention ↔ Внимание)
Line 37: Line 37:
 
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> I suppose I am going to have to pick up an object with my feet now?  
 
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> I suppose I am going to have to pick up an object with my feet now?  
  
<span style="color: green;">Учительница:</span> Well, not exactly. You are going to have to pick up that word for feet: the word for both feet and legs in Russian is но́ги. Your socks will do as an object. Anyway it is mostly going to be everyday kinds of activities like standing, walking, and do not forget talking. Follow our Russian video '''''Русские падежи, урок 2''''' so you do not get lost. And do not rush. More haste less speed. Do not waste your time learning things about Russian, learn Russian instead.  
+
<span style="color: green;">Учительница:</span> Well, not exactly. You are going to have to pick up that word for feet: the word for both feet and '''''legs''''' in Russian is '''''но́ги'''''. Your socks will do as an object. Anyway it is mostly going to be everyday kinds of activities like standing, walking, and do not forget talking. Follow our Russian video '''''Русские падежи, урок 2''''' so you do not get lost. And do not rush. More haste less speed. Do not waste your time learning things about Russian, learn Russian instead.  
  
 
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> It is you who always wants to go into explanations. Not me.
 
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> It is you who always wants to go into explanations. Not me.
Line 53: Line 53:
  
 
== Attention ↔ Внимание ==
 
== Attention ↔ Внимание ==
{{Pink|<poem>
+
{{Pink|'''''Это нога́ и это нога́, а это но́ги.  
'''''Это нога́ и это нога́, а это но́ги.  
 
  
 
The stress has moved back one syllable  
 
The stress has moved back one syllable  
Line 60: Line 59:
  
 
'''The stress is an accent placed on a certain vowel
 
'''The stress is an accent placed on a certain vowel
</poem>
+
 
|<poem>
+
|'''Stressed vowel is pronounced
'''Stressed vowel is pronounced
 
  
 
*more energetically
 
*more energetically
 
*louder  
 
*louder  
 
*a bit longer than any other vowels in that word
 
*a bit longer than any other vowels in that word
</poem>
+
|'''Unstressed vowels are pronounced  
|<poem>
 
'''Unstressed vowels are pronounced  
 
  
 
*less energetically  
 
*less energetically  
 
*a bit shorter  
 
*a bit shorter  
 
*lose their clarity  
 
*lose their clarity  
</poem>
+
|'''Not all vowels undergo changes in pronunciation as a result of the position of the stress in the word'''
|<poem>
+
<poem>
'''Not all vowels undergo changes in pronunciation as a result of the position of the stress in the word'''
+
'''''Ы, И, У, Ю, Ё''''' - Do not undergo qualitative phonetic change.  
 
+
They have basically the same sound, regardless of the stress.
'''''Ы, И, У, Ю, Ё''''' - Do not undergo qualitative phonetic change. They have basically the same sound, regardless of the stress.
 
  
'''''А, Е, О, Э, Я''''' - Undergo qualitative changes in pronunciation. They have different sounds when the stress in the word moves.
+
'''''А, Е, О, Э, Я''''' - Undergo qualitative changes in pronunciation.  
 +
They have different sounds when the stress in the word moves.
 
</poem>
 
</poem>
 
}}
 
}}
Line 86: Line 82:
 
==Where the stress is in a Russian word ↔ Где стоит ударение в русском слове==
 
==Where the stress is in a Russian word ↔ Где стоит ударение в русском слове==
 
{| width="100%"  
 
{| width="100%"  
| valign="top" align="left" style="border: 1px solid green; background-color: #f9f9f9; padding: 1em;"|<poem>
+
| valign="top" align="left" style="border: 1px solid green; background-color: #f9f9f9; padding: 1em;"|
 
<span style="color: green;">Учительница:</span> '''''Это нога́...'''''  
 
<span style="color: green;">Учительница:</span> '''''Это нога́...'''''  
  
 
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> '''''Нога́?''''' It is '''''o''''', but Masha pronounced it more like '''''u''''' in '''''up'''''.  
 
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> '''''Нога́?''''' It is '''''o''''', but Masha pronounced it more like '''''u''''' in '''''up'''''.  
  
<span style="color: green;">Учительница:</span> Correct. That is the way it should be pronounced, but try comparing its pronunciation with the first o in the English word comfort. In thе word '''''нога́''''' the stress falls on the last '''''а́'''''.  
+
<span style="color: green;">Учительница:</span> Correct. That is the way it should be pronounced, but try comparing its pronunciation with the first '''''o''''' in the English word '''''comfort'''''. In thе word '''''нога́''''' the stress falls on the last '''''а́'''''.  
  
 
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> What is this word stress?  
 
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> What is this word stress?  
  
<span style="color: green;">Учительница:</span> Compare the way you pronounce words present and desert in these sentences:  
+
<span style="color: green;">Учительница:</span> Compare the way you pronounce words '''''present''''' and '''''desert''''' in these sentences:  
  
 
*'''''I present you with a present.'''''  
 
*'''''I present you with a present.'''''  
Line 108: Line 104:
 
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> '''''Но́ги.''''' Why?  
 
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> '''''Но́ги.''''' Why?  
  
<span style="color: green;">Учительница:</span> The root of the word '''''нога́''''' is '''''ног''''', its ending is '''''a''''': it shows that this noun belongs to the Feminine Gender and is Singular. In the English word '''''leg''''' there is no Gender ending, because of the absence of Genders in modern English.  
+
<span style="color: green;">Учительница:</span> The root of the word '''''[[wikipedia:wiktionary:ru:нога|нога́]]''''' is '''''ног''''', its ending is '''''a''''': it shows that this noun belongs to the [[Russian grammar - Nouns - Feminine gender ↔ Русская грамматика - Имя существительное - Женский род|feminine gender]] and is singular. In the English word '''''leg''''' there is no gender ending, because of the absence of genders in modern English.  
 
*The ending of the word '''''но́ги''''' is '''''и''.  
 
*The ending of the word '''''но́ги''''' is '''''и''.  
*It shows that this noun is not Singular, but Plural.  
+
*It shows that this noun is not singular, but [[Russian grammar - Nouns - Plural ↔ Русская грамматика - Имя существительное - Множественное число|plural]].  
*In the English word '''''legs''''' the '''''s''''' ending shows that it is Plural.
+
*In the English word '''''legs''''' the '''''s''''' ending shows that it is plural.
  
 
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> I can understand so far. But now in '''''но́ги''''' it is '''''o''''' for '''''nor'''''.  
 
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> I can understand so far. But now in '''''но́ги''''' it is '''''o''''' for '''''nor'''''.  
Line 119: Line 115:
 
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> When Maya said '''''на другой ноге''''' she pronounced '''''o''''' more like '''''u''''' in '''''up''''' again!
 
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> When Maya said '''''на другой ноге''''' she pronounced '''''o''''' more like '''''u''''' in '''''up''''' again!
  
<span style="color: green;">Учительница:</span> Now it is word '''''ноге́''''', Prepositional Singular for '''''нога́''''' That is why o is unstressed and pronounced as the first '''''u''''' in '''''up'''''.
+
<span style="color: green;">Учительница:</span> Now it is word '''''ноге́''''', [[Russian cases - Nouns - Prepositional case ↔ Русские падежи - Имя существительное - Предложный падеж|prepositional singular]] for '''''нога́''''' That is why '''''o''''' is unstressed and pronounced as the first '''''u''''' in '''''up'''''.
</poem>
+
 
 
| valign="top" align="left" style="border: 1px solid green; background-color: #f9f9f9; padding: 1em;"|  
 
| valign="top" align="left" style="border: 1px solid green; background-color: #f9f9f9; padding: 1em;"|  
<poem>
 
 
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> How do I know where the stress should be?  
 
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> How do I know where the stress should be?  
  
Line 137: Line 132:
 
If it is any relief to you, let me tell you that Russians had jokes about the way all their leaders spoke. Those who made them about Stalin and Beria have done time for it, under Khrushchev and Brezhnev it was not such a serious offence. Even Gorbachev’s southern accent was a subject for jokes.  
 
If it is any relief to you, let me tell you that Russians had jokes about the way all their leaders spoke. Those who made them about Stalin and Beria have done time for it, under Khrushchev and Brezhnev it was not such a serious offence. Even Gorbachev’s southern accent was a subject for jokes.  
  
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> All right, so I have no chance to know where the stress should be. The stress is very important and in the case of the word '''''нога́''''' it is moving back one syllable '''''но́ги''''' sometimes and sometimes it does not move, like in word '''''ноге́'''''. Oh.  
+
<span style="color: green;">Ученик:</span> All right, so I have no chance to know where the stress should be. The stress is very important and in the case of the word '''''нога́''''' it is moving back one syllable '''''но́ги''''' sometimes and sometimes it does not move, like in word '''''ноге́''''' ([[Russian cases - Nouns - Dative case ↔ Русские падежи - Имя существительное - Дательный падеж|dative]] or [[Russian cases - Nouns - Prepositional case ↔ Русские падежи - Имя существительное - Предложный падеж|prepositional]] case). Oh.  
  
 
When I was doing the exercises with my hands the stress moved as well, but then the sound '''''у''''' in '''''pука́''''' did not change as much as the sound '''''o''''' in '''''нога́'''''.  
 
When I was doing the exercises with my hands the stress moved as well, but then the sound '''''у''''' in '''''pука́''''' did not change as much as the sound '''''o''''' in '''''нога́'''''.  
Line 148: Line 143:
  
 
<span style="color: green;">Учительница:</span> I did my best to make up a table for you that makes some sence. Read [[Stress and Russian vowels ↔ Ударение и русские гласные]].  
 
<span style="color: green;">Учительница:</span> I did my best to make up a table for you that makes some sence. Read [[Stress and Russian vowels ↔ Ударение и русские гласные]].  
</poem>
 
  
  

Revision as of 06:41, 21 June 2011

Template:Original Template:Russian book top

Exercises with the arms and legs ↔ Упражнения с руками и ногами

Учительница: It is time to work out with your legs.

Ученик: I suppose I am going to have to pick up an object with my feet now?

Учительница: Well, not exactly. You are going to have to pick up that word for feet: the word for both feet and legs in Russian is но́ги. Your socks will do as an object. Anyway it is mostly going to be everyday kinds of activities like standing, walking, and do not forget talking. Follow our Russian video Русские падежи, урок 2 so you do not get lost. And do not rush. More haste less speed. Do not waste your time learning things about Russian, learn Russian instead.

Ученик: It is you who always wants to go into explanations. Not me.

Nominative.jpg

NOM

Genitive.jpg

GEN

Dative.jpg

DAT

Accusative.jpg

ACC

Instrumental.jpg

INSTR

Prepositional.jpg

PREP




Attention ↔ Внимание

Template:Pink

Where the stress is in a Russian word ↔ Где стоит ударение в русском слове

Учительница: Это нога́...

Ученик: Нога́? It is o, but Masha pronounced it more like u in up.

Учительница: Correct. That is the way it should be pronounced, but try comparing its pronunciation with the first o in the English word comfort. In thе word нога́ the stress falls on the last а́.

Ученик: What is this word stress?

Учительница: Compare the way you pronounce words present and desert in these sentences:

  • I present you with a present.
  • We desert a desert.

The different meanings of these words are achieved by changing the position of the stress from first e to the last e within the words present and desert.

The stress is as important in Russian as the length of a certain vowels in English, compare: beet and bit; peak and pick; pot and port; shot and short. In contrast to English, the length of a vowel in Russian has no role to play: ногa, но-o-o-oгa-a-а, pука, pу-у-у-укa-a-а, — are the same words in Russian.

The stress in Russian is even more important than the length of a vowel in English: in the case of any misunderstanding it may bring confusion not to the individual word, but the whole sentence. Это нога́ и это нога́, а это но́ги.

Ученик: Но́ги. Why?

Учительница: The root of the word нога́ is ног, its ending is a: it shows that this noun belongs to the feminine gender and is singular. In the English word leg there is no gender ending, because of the absence of genders in modern English.

  • The ending of the word но́ги is и.
  • It shows that this noun is not singular, but plural.
  • In the English word legs the s ending shows that it is plural.

Ученик: I can understand so far. But now in но́ги it is o for nor.

Учительница: The stress has moved back one syllable and the vowel o undergoes changes in pronunciation as a result.

Ученик: When Maya said на другой ноге she pronounced o more like u in up again!

Учительница: Now it is word ноге́, prepositional singular for нога́ That is why o is unstressed and pronounced as the first u in up.

Ученик: How do I know where the stress should be?

Учительница: I am sorry to tell you that you will not. You will know this only in a case if the formula it sounds right eventually works for you. You have to learn it by trial and error.

Russians themselves are not always sure that they are placing the stress right, particularly on foreign words which came into Russian not so long ago. In some foreign words, it is even considered correct to pronounce the unstressed o the same way as the stressed one: радио (radio), оазис (oasis).

The whole books are written about this subject by Russians and for Russians. Nationwide TV discussions and seminars are held on this theme year after year. The correct (accepted, right) stress is a distinct mark of an education in Russia. The law of Russian society says that the first thing any educated person must know is how to put stress right. Russians laugh at those who put the stress wrong. As well they can dislike someone just because the person does not place stresses correctly.

Ученик: Dislike? May I should not bother with learning this language at all.

Учительница: Don’t you worry. You are going to be in a privileged position. Russians are so proud of the fact that their stresses almost always fall on the most unpredictable places that they graciously concede to you as a foreigner and wouldn't be too hard on you. If you ask them for help they will be delighted and generously correct you.

If it is any relief to you, let me tell you that Russians had jokes about the way all their leaders spoke. Those who made them about Stalin and Beria have done time for it, under Khrushchev and Brezhnev it was not such a serious offence. Even Gorbachev’s southern accent was a subject for jokes.

Ученик: All right, so I have no chance to know where the stress should be. The stress is very important and in the case of the word нога́ it is moving back one syllable но́ги sometimes and sometimes it does not move, like in word ноге́ (dative or prepositional case). Oh.

When I was doing the exercises with my hands the stress moved as well, but then the sound у in pука́ did not change as much as the sound o in нога́.

Ученик: Is there is any vowel which is always pronounced the same?

Учительница: The letter ё is always stressed and always pronounced the same. But unfortunately it is usually written e except in dictionaries, other clever books and Wikipedia, because strictly speaking it isn't considered to be a separate letter of the Russian alphabet.

Ученик: It isn't much of a help, is it?

Учительница: I did my best to make up a table for you that makes some sence. Read Stress and Russian vowels ↔ Ударение и русские гласные.


Template:Russian book bottom