|Russian morphology 4 Languages Russian|
- Root denotes the basic meaning or function of the word.
- All morphemes within the word (except the ending) are referred to as the stem: PREFIX + ROOT + SUFFIX=STEAM.
Russian morphemes are classed according to the order they appear in a word: PREFIX > ROOT > SUFFIX > ENDING.
Each morpheme has one or a few predictable meanings, which add:
- a new meaning to the root of the word and
- can change the function of the word
уч/и/тель/ниц/а - уч/еник
- -уч- is the root which denotes the basic meaning of these two words
- -и- is a suffix which is added after the consonant ч
- -тель is a suffix which indicates that the noun has been made up from a verb (in our case уч/и/ть/ся) and it refers currently to a profession/occupation of a male
- -ниц- is a suffix which indicates that the noun has been made up from a related noun, which refers to a male (in our case уч/и/тель) and now it refers to a female
- -а is a nominative case feminine ending of a noun
- -еник is a suffix which indicates that the noun has been made up from a verb (in our case уч/и/ть/ся) and it refers at the present to a male
How can you learn to make new Russian words
Учительница: Let’s speak about morphology, the morphological structure of Russian words. Since you probably don't want to be a linguist, I can share with you some of the knowledge that I have gathered from Russian teachers, from my students, Russian language books and from my experience of being Russian.
Ученик: What are these morphemes? And how do you know what is the prefix, the root, the suffix and the ending of a word?
Учительница: Sometimes you would not know exactly which morphemes make up the word but you can always try guessing.
Ученик: It is too much.
When I was a child I lived in a house next to the house a Russian linguist and Professor Zinovii Aronovich Potiha (Зиновий Аронович Потиха). When his wife found out that I had started to teach Russian in London and I am using the book "Строение русского слова", she presented me with a copy of the book with her signature and inscription.
Some Russian words with the root -уч-
||to teach, to learn
||to learn, to study
||teachers or teaching, duties of a teacher
||to be a teacher
||studies, learning, doctrine, teachings
||educational, training, academic
||tutorial, textbook, study book
||school, college, academy
|вы/уч/и/ть - вы/уч/и/ть(ся)
||to learn well, to teach thoroughly
|вы/уч/ива/ть - вы/уч/ива/ть(ся)
||to finish one's education
|за/уч/и/ть - за/уч/ива/ть
||to learn well (by heart)
|из/уч/и/ть - из/уч/a/ть
||to learn, to study in detail
|на/уч/и/ть - на/уч/и/ть(ся)
||to teach, to learn a skill, a proffesion
|об/уч/и/ть(ся) - об/уч/a/ть(ся)
||to learn something
|об/уч/и/ть - об/уч/a/ть
||to teach something
|пере/уч/и/ть - пере/уч/ива/ть
||to learn or to teach a new skill
|по/уч/и/ть - по/уч/a/ть
||to learn or to teach for some time or to teach from time to time
|про/уч/и/ть - про/уч/а/ть
||"to teach someone a lesson"
|уч/и/ть(ся) - по/уч/и/ть(ся)
||to learn - to learn for some time
|раз/уч/и/ть(ся) - раз/уч/ивa/ть(ся)
||to forget how to do something, to lose a skill
|Formation of Russian aspectual pairs