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Stress & Russian Vowels

Exercises with fingers Упражнения с пальцами
Exercises with hands Упражнения с руками
Functions of Russian cases Значения русских падежей
How did "Exercises with hands" feel Ну и как?
... further results

Слова́: бараба́н, молоко́, о́коло, до́ктор, окно́, о́зеро, Ло́ндон, Москва́, шокола́д, крокоди́л, спаси́бо, телеви́зор, экра́н, энциклопе́дия, эква́тор, экземпля́р, экску́рсия, эмо́ция, эне́ргия, э́ра, эскимо́, эсте́тика, эта́п, эфи́р, эквато́р, Эльбру́с, я́, я́блоко, я́рко, я́сно, янва́рь, неде́ля, ягуа́р, у́тро, улы́бка, нау́ка, могу́, уло́в, уро́д, ю́мор, ию́ль э́то - э́тот - то́т, до́м - дома́шняя рабо́та, нога́ - но́ги, пиро́г - пироги́, хожу́ - хо́дим, прихожу́ - прихо́дим, сло́во - слова́, о́стров - острова́, ю́нга - юне́ц, юла́ - юли́́ть, пи́р - пира́т, ми́р - мирово́й, хорошо́ - хоро́шего, пло́хо - плохо́го, всё - все́, берёт́ - бере́т.

Предложе́ния: Я люблю его́. - Кого́? - Моего́ хоро́шего, одного́-еди́нственного, родно́го, люби́мого и сла́дкого кота́! Моего́ Се́ржика! Посмотри́те: во́т э́то мо́й хоро́ший, люби́мый и замеча́тельный ко́тик.

  • его and ого is pronounced as ево and ово - Only in the endings of the pronouns and the adjectives in the Genitive and the Accusative cases!

Play а́ - я́ о́ - ё э́ - е́ у́ - ю́ ы́ - и́

  • The vowels Play ы, и, у, ю, ё don't change.
  • The vowels Play а, е, о, э, я change and sound different when the accent changes its position in a Russian word from one vowel to another.

The stress is an accent placed on a certain vowel. A stressed vowel is pronounced more energetically, louder a bit longer than any other vowels in that word. Unstressed vowels are pronounced less energetically, a bit shorter and they lose their clarity. Unstressed vowels may even undergo qualitative phonetic change. They may sound different.

Russian Vowel Reduction Table

2nd before stress 1st before stress Under stress After stress After stress Play Words
Сло- ва́ - - Cлова́ Play Words
ба- ра- ба́н - - бараба́н drum
мо- ло- ко́ - - молоко́ milk
- - о́- ко- ло о́коло around
- - до́к- тор - до́ктор doctor
- ок- но́ - - окно́ window
о- зе- ро́ - - озеро́ lake
- - Ло́н- дон - Ло́ндон London
- Мос- ква́ - - Москва́ Moscow
шо- ко- ла́д - - шокола́д chocolate
кро- ко- ди́л - - крокоди́л crocodile
- спа- си́- бо - спаси́бо Thank you
те- ле- ви́- зор - телеви́зор TV
- эк- ра́н - - экра́н screen
хо- ро- шо́ - - хорошо́ good
- - пло́- хо - пло́хо bad
- - сло́- во - сло́во word
2nd before stress 1st before stress Under stress After stress
а e in pen u in up a in ask e in pen
о e in pen u in up o in nor e in pen
э e in pen e in pen eh in Eh! e in pen
e e in pen ee in feet ye in yet e in pen
я e in pen ee in feet ya in soya e in pen
и ee in feet ee in feet ee in feet ee in feet
ы i in it i in it i in it i in it
у oo in book oo in book oo in book oo in book
ю you in you you in you you in you you in you
ё yo in York yo in York yo in York yo in York
Не имеет значения в каком порядке буквы в слове.jpg

Play По результатам исследований одного английского университета, не имеет значения в каком порядке расположены буквы в слове. Главное, чтобы первая и последняя буквы были на месте. Остальные буквы могут следовать в полном беспорядке, все равно текст читается без проблем. Причиной этого является то, что мы не читаем каждую букву по отдельности, а всё слово целиком. Вывод: Представьте, что учите китайский, а все русские слова - иероглифы, так не и будете окать.

According to a research from an English university, it does not matter in what order the letters in a word are located. The most important thing is that the first and the last letters of the word are in the right place. The rest of the letters can be in a state of disarray. One can still read the text without problems. The reason for this is that we do not read each letter individually but the word as a whole. Conclusion: Imagine that you learn Chinese and all the Russian words are hieroglyphs. This way you will not pronounce "o" every time you see it.

Where the correct stress is?

Play Одна́ и одна́ нога́ э́то но́ги, э́то две́ ноги́.

Play Одна́ и одна́ рука́ э́то ру́ки, э́то две́ руки́.

Animated boy.gif

Ученик: I remember from exercises with hands that if the stress falls on у́ in the word pу́ки then it is nominative plural but if it falls on и́ - pуки́ then it is genitive singular. What about но́ги?

Учительница: A very good question. The same rule applies for но́ги:

  • The stress falls on o in the word но́ги - nominative plural for нога́, that is why o is stressed and pronounced like the o in nor.
  • The stress falls on и in the word ноги́ - genitive singular for нога́, that is why o is unstressed and pronounced like the u in up.

Read lesson Let's chat about stress and... feet.

Ученик: I read it! You wrote that there is no rule to determine where the stress is in a Russian word!

Учительница: It is so.

You'll have to learn the same way as a child learns. Watch the video. Maya pronounces the word уша́м correctly on the first one and incorrectly у́шам on the second one:

Я мешаю глазам смотреть. Я мешаю носу дышать. Я мешаю ушам слушать. Я мешаю рту говорить.
I don't let my eyes see (look). I don't let my nose breathe. I don't let my ears hear. I don't let my mouth speak.

Ученик: I won't be able to learn stresses!

Учительница: Don't worry, you will learn! Notice the way Ania sings "a"'s instead of "o"'s in "Голова и плечи, и коленки, и носочки" and try to sing the song with her. Sing Russian songs and learn few by heart. Make Russian vocology exercises.

Ученик: I don't want to learn that much by heart! Is there any other way to know how to pronounce Russian words?

Учительница: I have made a table for you. Listen and see how the stress position influences the pronunciation of the vowels in the table on this page. You can do it!

Ученик: Alright, so if I see the word written and somehow I know where the stress should be, with the help of this table, I will be able to pronounce the word correctly, is that so?

Учительница: Yes it is. Russian vowels change the way they sound. The vowels а, о, д, э and я do this a lot. When stressed, they behave normally and are pronounced in the usual way, but when they're in an unstressed position, they go through a process called vowel reduction. Notice that

  • letter и is pronounced as ы after ж, ц, ш

Andrey Zaliznyak's stress patterns of Russian nouns’

The stress falls on:

Pattern number 1 2 3 4 5 6
in singular on stem on ending on stem on ending on stem on ending
in nominative plural on stem on ending on ending on stem on stem on stem
in genitive, dative, instrumental, prepositional plural on stem on ending on ending on stem on ending on ending
Example мотор вещество слой земля корень полоса

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