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Turkish Alphabet

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Turkish Alphabet Türk alfabesi

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The Turkish alphabet is a based on the the Latin alphabet and consists of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş, and Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language. This alphabet represents modern Turkish pronunciation with a high degree of accuracy and specificity. It is the current official alphabet and the latest in a series of distinct alphabets used in different eras.

==Letters==
The letters of the Turkish alphabet are:
{|class="wikitable" style="border-collapse:collapse; font-size: 120%;"
|-
|bgcolor="#EFEFEF" align="center" colspan="29" | Capital letters
|-
|width=3% align="center"|A||width=3% align="center"|B||width=3% align="center"|C||width=3% align="center"|Ç||width=3% align="center"|D||width=3% align="center"|E||width=3% align="center"|F||width=3% align="center"|G||width=3% align="center"|Ğ||width=3% align="center"|H||width=3% align="center"|Dotted and dotless I|I||width=3% align="center"|Dotted and dotless I|İ||width=3% align="center"|J||width=3% align="center"|K||width=3% align="center"|L||width=3% align="center"|M||width=3% align="center"|N||width=3% align="center"|O||width=3% align="center"|Ö||width=3% align="center"|P||width=3% align="center"|R||width=3% align="center"|S||width=3% align="center"|Ş||width=3% align="center"|T||width=3% align="center"|U||width=3% align="center"|Ü||width=3% align="center"|V||width=3% align="center"|Y||width=3% align="center"|Z
|-
|align="center" colspan="29" | Lower case|Lower case letters
|-
|align="center"|a||align="center"|b||align="center"|c||align="center"|ç||align="center"|d||align="center"|e||align="center"|f||align="center"|g||align="center"|ğ||align="center"|h||align="center"|Dotted and dotless I|ı||align="center"|i||align="center"|j||align="center"|k||align="center"|l||align="center"|m||align="center"|n||align="center"|o||align="center"|ö||align="center"|p||align="center"|r||align="center"|s||align="center"|ş||align="center"|t||align="center"|u||align="center"|ü||align="center"|v||align="center"|y||align="center"|z
|}

Of these 29 letters, eight are vowels (A, E, Dotted and dotless I|I, İ, O, Ö, U, Ü); the 21 others are consonants.

The letters Q, W, and X of the ISO basic Latin alphabet do not occur in the Turkish alphabet (replacements for these letters are K, V and KS), while dotted and dotless I are distinct letters in Turkish so that "i" does not become "I" when capitalized.

Turkish also uses a, i and u with the circumflex:

  • â for /aː/ and/or to indicate that the consonant before â is palatalized
  • î for /iː/ (no palatalization implied)
  • û for /uː/ and/or to indicate palatalization.


==Names==
The names of the vowel letters are the vowels themselves, whereas the names of the consonant letters are the consonant plus e. The one exception is ğ ("yumuşak ge"; i.e. "soft g"):

a, be, ce, çe, de, e, fe, ge, yumuşak ge, he, ı, i, je, ke, le, me, ne, o, ö, pe, re, se, şe, te, u, ü, ve, ye, ze

==Sounds==

Turkish orthography is highly regular and a word's pronunciation is always completely identified by its spelling. The following table presents the Turkish letters, the sounds they correspond to in International Phonetic Alphabet and how these can be approximated more or less by an English speaker.

Letter
IPA
English
approximation
Letter
IPA
English
approximation
A a /a/||As a in father||M||m|||/m/||As m in man
B b /b/||As b in boy||N||n||/n/||As n in nice
C c /d͡ʒ/||As j in joy||O||o||/o/||As o in more
Ç ç /t͡ʃ/||As ch in chair||Ö||ö||/ø/||As e in set, but with lips rounded
D d /d/||As d in dog||P||p||/p/||As p in pin
E e /e/||As e in red||R||r||/ɾ/||As r in rat
F f /f/||As f in far||S||s||/s/||As s in song
G g /ɡ/, /ɟ/||As g in got||Ş||ş||/ʃ/||As sh in show
Ğ ğ /ː/, /‿/, /ʲ/||As g in git, but with tongue pressed against palate ||T||t||/t/||As t in tick
H h /h/||As h in hot||U||u||/u/||As oo in zoo
I ı /ɯ/||As e in open||Ü||ü||/y/||As e in new
İ i /i/||As ee in feet||V||v||/ʋ/, /v/||As v in vaccine
J j /ʒ/||As s in measure||Y||y||/j/||As y in yes
K k /k/, /c/||As k in kit||Z||z||/z/||As z in zigzag
L l /ɫ/, /l/||As l in love