Gramática del ruso

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Quatro sentencas com quase o mesmo significado: O gato ama peixe. O gato e quem ama, ele e o sujeito da oracao. O peixe e quem esta sendo amado. Ele e o objeto da oracao.

Учительница: Grammar is something that linguists can argue about. It is some description of a structure of a language. A few sounds joined together make up a word, a few words joined together make up a sentence and every word has its own meaning in that sentence. As for me, the rule doesn't always apply. I love speaking gibberish or gobbledygook Russian (несу белиберду или же галиматью).
Ученик: I don't want to speak gibberish, but Russian.

Учительница: I won't be able to teach you gibberish Russian, that is unachievable. I have learnt English for over 40 years and still can't speak gibberish English, I can only talk nonsense.
Ученик: Thank you.

Учительница: Russian grammar is something that a lot of people struggle with. Don't despair and bear in mind, if you can understand what academics say about it, I will lose my job. If you look at the Wikipedia article about Russian grammar you will notice a large part of it devoted to Russian nouns. Nouns are used to designate living beings, objects or abstract ideas: кот (cat), рыба (fish), любовь (love).

Ученик: Cases, what on earth are they and why do I need to know about them?

Учительница: Well, the order in which you join the words in a sentence isn't that important in Russian, it is a free-word-order language, as opposed to your native fixed-word-order language. It is the case of a noun, but not its position in a sentence as in English, that indicates its function. You won't be able to speak Russian at all without a good understanding of the cases.

The cat loves fish and The fish loves the cat are sentences with a different meaning. Do you agree?

Ученик: They are. Tell me the Russian words and I will tell you the correct sentence in Russian.

Учительница: Here you are: pыба (fish), любит (loves), кот (cat). The nouns кот, pыба are in the nominative case here because I only nominate (name) them: the cat, the fish. There are no articles a, an, the in Russian. What is your sentence?

Я люблю рыбу.
Рыбу я люблю.
Люблю я рыбу.
Рыбу люблю я.

Ученик: Кот любит рыба.

Учительница: Wrong. The word order means nothing in Russian but the case endings do. They would not understand you. Кот, as the subject of the sentence, should remain in the nominative case but pыба, as an object, should be in the accusative case - pыбу. Only then will your sentence make proper sense to a Russian speaker. What is more pыба and pыбу are considered to be the same word in Russian.

Кот любит рыбу. Рыбу любит кот. Любит кот рыбу. Рыбу кот любит.


Ученик: Come on. They should know that cats love fish and not the other way around.

Учительница: OK, you will get away with it there.

Why do Russians speak this way[edit]

Four sentences with almost the same meaning: Misha loves Maya: Misha is the one who does "the loving", the subject of the sentence. Maya is the one who is being loved, the object of the sentence. These sentences don't tell us whether Maya loves Misha or not.

Учительница: What if it was not the cat and the fish but Misha, Maya and Luba (Миша, Майя, Люба) instead?

Миша любит Майю. Майю любит Миша. Любит Миша Майю. Любит Майю Миша. Кто кого любит?


Ученик: It is so confusing. Why do Russians speak this way?

Учительница: I don't know but they do. Russians don't do it to confuse foreigners, well some might but not all. Personally I think that they do it so that the sentence they produce sounds beautiful. I have some friends that I love just because they speak beautifully. Silly but it is a fact of my life. Russians love beauty, especially in music and speech. As a result, the number of cases is mixed in an ordinary Russian sentence in the most unpredictable way for an English speaker. Not only nouns but adjectives, pronouns and numerals may be in different cases as well. You will have very little chance of understanding who does what, where and with what if you can't master the cases.

Ученик: Adjectives, pronouns and numerals, what are they? Wikipedia articles look like Chinese to me. You don't really expect me to understand all of that?

Учительница: No, not at all, I want you to use them when you speak Russian. You can have a quick look at our reference Russian grammar online, but it is only reference!

Ученик: How do you expect me to use them? You have not even mentioned anything about verbs yet. At least I know that to compose a sentence you might need a verb.

Учительница: Sometimes, to speak in Russian you don't need any verb. Have a look at my video Очень приятно с вами познакомиться; I speak to you without using any verbs. Can you understand me?
Ученик: What a language. Are you sure that those Russians really can understand each other? No wonder their economy is in such a mess.

Учительница: Are we here to discuss the Russian grammar or economy? You can manage without the verbs now! Anyway, you will be relieved to know that verbs are not as difficult in Russian as in French or Italian. You don't have to learn endless tables by heart!

Why you can't recognise the familiar Russian words[edit]

Кота не люблю я.
Я не люблю кота.
Не люблю кота я.
Я кота не люблю.
Что такое любовь?

Four sentences with almost the same meaning: The fish doesn't love the cat. The fish is the one who does the "not loving". The fish the subject of the sentence and therefore it is in the nominative case. The cat is the one who is being not loved. The cat the object of the sentence and therefore it is in the accusative case.

  • The word pыба doesn't change
  • The the word кот becomes кота
  • The ending -a has been added to the end of the word кот
  • The stress in the word кота moved from initial o to the ending -a
  • The vowel o is pronounced more like o in London as the result of the change

Typology of English is Subject-Verb-Object. Russian is a Free-Word-Order language.

Учительница: Listen! What do you think fish is saying there?

Кота не любит рыба. Рыба не любит кота. Не любит кота рыба. Рыба кота не любит. Что такое любовь?


Ученик: I don't know.

Учительница: So you told me that the fish doesn't love the cat?

Ученик: Of course it doesn't.

Учительница: You could not recognise the word кот because it became the word кота! You can recognise the word when you see it written, but you can't recognise the word when you only hear it.
Ученик: Why do Russians don't say the words as they write them?

Учительница: The change of a word’s role in a Russian sentence causes nouns, pronouns, numerals and adjectives to change their form (decline). There are only few simple sentences where these changes don't occur, such as:

  • Я учительница. (I am a teacher.)
  • Это стол. (It’s a table.)

Usually most of the words in a Russian sentence would be phonetically changed (sound different), or as linguists say, they go through consonant and vowel alternation (vowel reduction) as well. Read more about stress and Russian vowels. Russians write the words according to the rules of the Russian orthography. The written Russian has its modern appearance after the spelling reform of 1918. Another orthography reform was proposed in 1964, however, it failed to take root.

Ученик: No wonder, my friend who has lived in Russia for years can only connect two words together. He did not learn any Russian at all! I would like to do better than that.

Учительница: This is a big problem of many students of Russian: when they hear the words spoken but not written, they not able to recall those words at all! Russian orthography doesn't reflect vowel reduction and this can cause confusion for beginning students of Russian. Your friend has to overcome many difficulties in order to connect more than two words together in Russian.

Ученик: What do I do then?

Учительница: The first step in dealing with this problem is to get accustomed to the sounds of spoken Russian and to all the different kinds of the phonetic changes that may occur.

Ученик: Can we do some Russian now, at least the alphabet? You have such funny looking letters.

Учительница: Let's learn Russian alphabet, but don't forget to read lesson Russian phonology after you have learnt the letters.

Я люблю рыбу.
Рыбу я люблю.
Люблю я рыбу.
Рыбу люблю я.

Quatro sentencas com quase o mesmo significado: Misha ama Maya. Misha e quem ema, ele e o sujeito da oracao. Maya e o que esta sendo amado, ela e objeto da oracao. Nenhuma dessas quatro frases nos dizem se Maya ama Misha ou nao.

Кота не люблю я.
Я не люблю кота.
Не люблю кота я.
Я кота не люблю.
Что такое любовь?

Quatro sentencas com quase o mesmo significado: O peixe nao gosta de do gato. El pescado es el que "no ama". El pescado es el sujeto de la oración y por lo tanto está en el caso nominativo. El gato es el que no es amado. El gato es el objeto de la oración y por lo tanto está en el caso acusativo

  • La palabra pыба no cambia
  • La palabra кот se convierte en кота
  • La terminación -a ha sido añadido a la final de la palabra кот
  • El acento en la palabra кота ha pasado de la o inicial a la terminación -a
  • La vocal o se pronuncia como a en casa, como resultado del cambio

Un ejemplo de Portuguese es ???SUJETO-VERBO-OBJETO. En lengua rusa el orden de las palabras no importa.}} Template:Russian book Portuguese Template:Russian aerobics Portuguese Template:Russian nouns Portuguese Учительница: Gramática e algo que os linguistas discutem. Se trata de una descricao de estrutura de uma certa libgua. Uma palavra e formada do ajuntamento de sons , assim como varias palavras juntas formam uma frase, e cada palavra tem seu proprio significafo dentro da frase. Eu gosto de quebrar as regras. Gosto de falar um russo enrolado. ( несу белиберду или же галиматью).

Ученик: Nao quero falar coisas sem nexo, mas sim russo.

Учительница: Nao seria capaz de ensinar o idioma russo complexamente, e impossivel. Tenho estudado ingles por mais de 40 anos e aina nao sou capaz de falar ingles de forma complexa, somente dizendo coisas sem sentido.

Ученик: Obrigado.

Учительница: A gramática russa e algo com que muitas pessoas tem dificuldade. Nao se desanime e sempre se lembre que se voce pudesse entender o que os academicos dizem, eu nao teria trabalho. Se voce olhar para a pagina sobre gramatica russa no Wikipedia, voce percebera que uma grande parte e dedicada aos nomes. Nomes sao utilizados para designar seres vivos, objetos ou ideias: кот (gato), рыба (peixes), любовь (amor).

Ученик: Quais sao os casos e por que eu precisaria aprende-los?

Учительница:Bem, a ordem das palavras na frase nao e importante, e uma linguaqem que nao tem ordem sintatica, ao contrario de outros idiomas em quais as palavras tem um determinada ordem. O contexto determinara a funcao do nome e sua posicao na oracao. Voce nao sera capaz de falar russo senao compreender o contexto das frases. O gato ama o peixe e O peixe ama o gato sao frases com significado diferente. Concorda?

Ученик: Sim. Me diga palavras russas e ou te direi a frase correta em russo.

Учительница: Aqui estao: pыба (peixe), любит (ama), кот (gato). Os nomes de pыба, кот, estao no nominativo, porque estou somente enunciando (nome): o gato, peixe. Nao ha artigos um, uma, o em russo. Qual e a sua frase?

Ученик: Кот любит рыба.

Учительница: A ordem das palavras não tem significado em uso, apenas os declínios dos casos. Nenhum russo vai te entender.

Кот, deve permanecer como sujeito da oracao caso nominativo, mas pыба, como um objeto, deve ser usado caso acusativo: pыбу. So assim sua frase tera significado correto para uma pessoa que fale russo. Alem do mais, pыба e pыбу em russo e considerado como a mesma palavra.

Кот любит рыбу. Рыбу любит кот. Любит кот рыбу. Рыбу кот любит.

Ученик: ¡Convenhamos. Todo mundo sabe que gatos amam peixe, mas que isso nao e reciproco.

Учительница: Concordo, e te dou toda razao.

Por que russo falam dessa forma?[edit]

Учительница: Mas e se nao fosse gato e peixe e sim Misha, Maya e Luba (Миша, Майя и Люба)?

Миша любит Майю. Майю любит Миша. Любит Миша Майю. Любит Майю Миша. Кто кого любит?

Ученик: Isso e tao confuso. Por que os russos falam assim?

Учительница:Não sei o por que, mas eles fazem dessa forma sim. Eles nao fazem isso para confundir os estrangeiros, bem, talvez alguns, mas não todos. Pessoalmente acho que eles fazem isso de modo que as frases soem de uma forma bonita. Tenho amigos, que eu simplesmente amo porque eles falam de uma forma muito bonita e agradavel de se ouvir. Parece bobagem, mas eu não consigo evitar. Os russos amam a beleza, especialmente na música e na fala. Portanto, o número de diferente casos usados ​​em uma simples frase é imprevisível para uma pessoa que fale portugues. Não só os nomes, mas também adjetivos, pronomes e números em diferentes casos. Você terá poucas chances de entender quem faz o quê, onde e como, se não dominar os casos.

Ученик: ¿Qué son los adjetivos, pronombres y números? Los artículos de la Wikipedia me suenan a chino. ¿De verad esperas que entienda todo eso?

Учительница: No, realmente no, quiero que los uses cuando hables ruso. Puedes echarle un vistazo a nuestra gramática rusa de referencia on line, pero solo como referencia.

Ученик: ¿Cómo esperas que los use? Todavía no hemos hablado de los verbos. Al menos sé que para formar una frase debería usar un verbo.

Учительница: A veces para hablar ruso ni siquiera necesitas un verbo. Mira mi vídeo Очень приятно с вами познакомиться! Estoy hablando sin necesidad de utilizar ningún verbo. ¿Puedes entenderme?

Ученик: ¡Qué idioma!. ¿Estás seguro de que los rusos realmente se entieden entre sí? No me sorprende que su economía sea un desastre.

Учительница: ¿Estamos aquí para discutir sobre la gramática rusa o la economía?Por el momento, puedes defenderte sin los verbos. De todas formas, te aliviará saber que los verbos en ruso no son tan complicados como lo son en francés o italiano. No tendrás que aprender de memoria infinitas tablas.

Por que voce nao pode reconhecer palavras russas ja aprendidas[edit]

Учительница: ¡Escucha! ¿Qué crees que dicen los peces?

Кота не любит рыба. Рыба не любит кота. Не любит кота рыба. Рыба кота не любит. Что такое любовь?

Ученик: No sé.

Учительница: ¿Me dijiste que a los peces no les gusta el gato?

Ученик: Por supuesto que no les gusta.

Учительница: ¡No podías reconocer la palabra кот, ya que se ha convertido en la palabra кота ! Se puede reconocer una palabra cuando la ves escrita, pero no cuando solo se escucha.

Ученик: ¿Por qué los rusos no pronuncian las palabras como las escriben?

Учительница: El cambio en la función de una palabra dentro de una frase supone que los nombres, pronombres, adjetivos y numerales cambien, esto son las declinaciones. Hay sólo unas pocas frases sencillas en las que estos cambios no se hacen, por ejemplo:

  • Я учительница. (Soy profesor.)
  • Это стол. (Es una mesa.)

Por lo general, la mayoría de las palabras en una oración en ruso tendrán cambios foneticos (sonarán diferentes), o como dicen los lingüistas, presentarán alteraciones consonánticas y vocales (reducción de vocales). Puedes leer más al respecto en página acentos y vocales rusas.

Los rusos escriben de acuerdo a las reglas de ortografía rusas. El ruso escrito configuró su apariencia moderna después de la reforma ortográfica de 1918. En 1964 se propuso otra reforma ortografica que no prosperó.

Ученик: No es de extrañar que mi amigo que ha vivido en Rusia durante muchos años sólo sea capaz de conectar dos palabras juntas. ¡No aprendió nada de ruso! Me gustaría hacerlo mejor.

Учительница: Este es un gran problema para muchos estudiantes de ruso: al oír las palabras, pero no verlas escritas, ¡no pueden recordarlas!. La ortografía rusa no refleja la reducción de las vocales, y esto puede causar confusión a los estudiantes principiantes. Tu amigo tiene que superar muchas dificultades para conectar más de dos palabras en ruso.

Ученик: ¿Qué hago entonces?

Учительница: El primer paso para tratar este problema es acostumbrarse a los sonidos del habla rusa y a todos los tipos de cambios fonéticos que pueden ocurrir.

Ученик: Ahora ¿podemos empezar con un poco de ruso, al menos con el alfabeto?Sus letras tienen una pinta muy graciosa.

Учительница: Aprende el alfabeto ruso, pero no te olvides de leer la lección fonología rusa después de aprender las letras.