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Russian cases

Russian declension of nouns involves 6 cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, prepositional, in two numbers singular and plural (some Russian nouns are always plural or always singular), and absolutely obeying 3 grammatical genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Russian nouns are either animate or inanimate. Russian adjectives, pronouns and numerals decline too; they agree with nouns in gender, number and case.



Nominative case (Именительный падеж) - "naming"

The nominative case is, in essence, the subject of the sentence. This case is also the form of the noun that you will find in the dictionary. The English word "nominative" comes from the Latin word for "name". The Russian word "именительный" comes from the root "имя", meaning "name".

Genitive case (Родительный падеж) - "generations, relations"

The genitive case tells us where something originates from. It is used to express the same ideas that are expressed by "of", apostrophe + "s", and "from" in English. The English word "genitive" is related to the verb "generate". In Russian, "родить" means "to give birth to".

Dative case (Дательный падеж) - "giving"

The dative case is used for the indirect object of the sentence. If you're not familiar with English grammar, the indirect object is the noun which receives the secondary action of the verb. For example, in the sentence "I gave the ball to the dog." the word "dog" is the indirect object. The dative case can generally be thought of as "at", "to", "towards", or "for" someone or something if it is used without a prepostion. The dative case can also be used to describe "along" or "on" something.

Accusative case (Винительный падеж) - "accusing someone or something"

Accusative case (Винительный падеж) - "naming"]] The accusative case is used for the direct object of the sentence. If you're not familiar with English grammar, the direct object is the noun which receives the initial action of the verb. For example, in the sentence "I gave the ball to the dog." the word "ball" is the direct object.

Instrumental case (Творительный падеж) - "instrument, tool"

The instrumental case tells us what we use to do something. It can often be associated with the English words "with" or "by", but sometimes doesn't require a preposition to be present. It is also used to show that one object is located a short distance from, or in the vicinity of, another object. It is also used with the prepositions "over" and "under".

Prepositional / Locative case (Предложный падеж) - "position and/or preposition"

The prepositional case, also known as the locative case, describes the location or position of a noun. It is often used with prepositions such as "on", "at", "in", "about", and others.


Print out the table containing all six Russian cases. The grammar tables should be regarded as for reference only.

Russian cases table wikitranslate.jpg